Lawoti: Ethnic Or Administrative Federalism


g]kfndf Hfflto ls k|zf;lgs ;+l3otf<

8f= dx]Gb| nfjtL

President, the Association for Nepal and Himalayan Studies

;+;f/df b'O ls;Ldsf ;+3fTds Aoa:yf kfOG5 . 7'nf b]zx?df k|zf;lgs / ax'hflto b]zdf hflto ;+3fTds Aoa:yf kfOG5 . ;+3fTds /x]sf ;a} nf]stflGqs ax'hflto -hxfF hflto, eflifs, wfdL{s ?kdf hgtfx? kl/rflnt 5g_ b]zx?df hflto ;+3fTds ;+/rgf 5 . Switzerland, Belgium, India, Spain, Canada, Austria, Papua New Guinea cflb hflto ;+3fTds /fHox? x'g . g]kfn h:tf] ax'hflto b]zdf k|zf;lgs ;+3Lotf dfq jsfnt ug]{ AolStx?n] cem klg g]kfnsf] ax'hflto oyf{ytfnfO :jLsfg{ g;s]sf] ;+s]t lbG5 .

k|zf;lgs ;+3Lotf clt 7'nf] b]zx?df ;;fgf k|;fzlgs If]qx? agfO k|zf;lgs r':ttf Nofpgsf] nflu ckgfOG5 . ax'hflto b]zx?df To:tf] ;+/rgfn] ;dfhdf /x]sf] ax'hflto :j?knfO ;Daf]wg ub}{g . ;dfhsf] agf]6 / /fHosf] ;+/rgf d]n vfPg eg] To;n] lau|x / lx+;f lgDTofp5 . To;}n] k|zf;lgs ;+3Lotfn] g]kfnn] em]ln/x]sf]] ;d:ofx?sf] xn ug{ g;Sg] dfq xf]Og yk ;d:of v8f ug{ ;S5 . dw]zL / cflbjf;L hghfltx?n] hflto ;+3Lotf dfuL /x]sf] ;Gb{edf k|zf;lgs ;+3Lotfn] tL dfux? s;/L ;fDo kfb{5 <>

g]kfndf laleGg hflto ;d'bfox?n] ;f+:s[lts jf hftLo ;+3fTds ;+/rgfsf] dfu ul//x]sf 5g eg] s]lx sf7df8f}+jfzL k'?if afx'gx?n] k|zf;lgs ;+3fTds ;+/rgfsf] jsfnt u/]sf 5g . hgtfx? hflto ?kdf klxrfg ug]{ ;dfhdf h'g ls;Ldsf] ;+3fTds ;+/rgf ckgfP klg s'g} g s'g} hfltsf] To; If]qdf k|eTj /xG5 . k|zf;lgs ;+3fTds ;+/rgfsf] jsfnt ug]{x?sf] bfjL To:tf] If]q hflto ?kdf lg/k]If x'g]5 eGg] 5 . em66 x]bf{ To:tf] nfUg klg ;S5 t/ To:tf k|:tfljt k|b]zx?sf] hflto hg;+Vof x]/]df s] k|i6 x'G5 eg] tL If]qx?df ca afx'g If]qLx? ax'dtdf x'g]5g . k|zf;lgs ;+3fTds ;+/rgfsf k|Ztfj s]lx k'?if afx'gx?sf] ;s];Dd cfkmgf] hftnfO w]/} 7fpFdf ax'dtdf agfpg] bfp x'g ;S5 . k|zf;lgs ;+3fTds ;+/rgfn] hflto ?kn] kl/rflnt hgtfx?sf] cfsf+IffnfO ;Daf]wg ub}{}g . To;}n] To;n] lx+;f lgDTofpg ;S5 . of] s'/f sf7df8f}{ aflx/sf afxgx?n] a'em]sf 5g / w]/}n] hflto ;+3fTds dfunfO ;d{yg u/]sf5g . ef/tsf] :jtGqtf kl5 g]x?n] ef/tnfO{ k|zf;lgs ?kdf laefhg u/] . To;sf] blIf0f ef/tdf 7'nf] la/f]w eof] . eflifs b+uf eof] . g]x?n] ef/tnfO To; kl5 eflifs ;+3fTds ?kdf k'g laefhg ug{ afWo eP . hgtfsf] eflifs ?kn] :j;f;g ug]{ cfsf+Iffsf] ;Daf]wg ePsf]n] eflifs cfGbf]ng ;fDo eof] . To;n] 6fdLn gf8'sf] k[ystfjflb cfGbf]ngsf] klg cfwf/ v':sfO dTy/ kf/L lbof] . hflto ;+3fTds Aoa:yf ckgfOPdf To;n] hftLut ?kdf kl/rflnt hgtfsf] cfsf+Iffsf] klxrfg ul/ hflto cfGbf]ngnfO ;fDo (defuse) kfb{5 . hflto ;+3fTdstf åGå Aoa:yfkgsf] xltof/ xf] eg]/ k|f1x? eGb5g gls hflto lx+;fsf] aLp . t/ ;+;f/sf] w]/} 7fpFsf] cg'ejaf6 kfPsf] of] kf7nfO u|x0f ug{ sf7df8f}+af;L k'?if afx'gx?n] hlxn] / h] ;jfnx? klg cfkmg} b[li6sf]0faf6 dfq x]g]{ ;+ls{0f cfbt 5f]8g' kb{5 / hflto :jfy{ eGbf dfly p7g ;Sg' kb{5 .

ef/tsf] pt/ k'j{ / cGo If]qdf hflto ;+3fTds Aoa:yfn] ;a} hflto åGå (conflict) x? ;fDo gkf/]sf] s'/f klg ul/Psf] kfOPsf]5 . ef/tsf] ;jfndf s]xL ;fGb{les k|Zgx? s] xf] eg], Ps, pt/k'a{sf h'g lx+;fTds cfGbf]ngx? ;fDo eP, s] tL hflto ;+3fTds Aoa:yf a]u/ ;fDo xGy] <> a9]/ ef/t plxn] 6'ls| ;Sg] lyof] . ef/tdf afFls /x]sf cGo åGåx? cfd kxnsbdL (popular initiative) sf] k|lsofaf6 Zjfottf lbg] Aoa:yf ckgfPdf zflGtk'0f{ tl/sfn] ;Daf]wg ug{ ;lsG5 . Ps k6s u/]sf] k|b]zx?sf] laefhgn] ;a} ;d'bfox?sf] Ps} k6sdf ;a} cfsf+Iffx? ;Daf]wg x'G5 eGg] ;lDemg' 7'nf] e'n x'g]5 lsgsL rfxgf, cfsf+Iff / ;dfhsf] ca:yf abnL /xG5 . ;d'bfox? cGofodf k/]sf] dxz'z u/] kl5 cfGbf]ngdf pqg yfNb5g . Tof] slxn] ub{5g ;lhn} eGg ;lsGg lsgsL w]/} sf/0fx?n] c;/ kfb{5 . To:tf cfGbf]ngx? Nf]fstflGqs tl/sfaf6 xn ug]{ k|fjwfg agfOPdf ZfflGtk'0f{ tl/sfn] ;N6fpg ;lsG5 . s'g} ;d'bfon] :jfottf dfu]df / Go'gtd x:tfIf/ ;+sng u/]df pSt ;jfn :jL6h/Nof08df h:t} hgdtdf nfg] Aoa:yf ug'kb{5 . hgdtdf xf/] lrt a'emfpg ;S5g . lrt ga'em] / hfu+/ /x] csf]{ k6s km]/L k|of; unf{g t/ lx+;fTds af6f] ckgfpg] sf/0fx? sd x'G5 . k|To]s r'gfjdf oL ;jfn p7fpg kfpg] Aoa:yf ug{ ;lsG5 . o; cfd kxnsbdLsf] k|fjwfgaf6 hflto jf k|zf;lgs ;+3Lotf eGg] k|Zg klg 6'80uf] nufpg ;lsG5 .

kfls:tfg hfltotf -wd{_ sf] cfwf/df 6'ls|Psf] eg]/ cS;/ elgG5 . 5'66L'g cufj} d'lZnd lnun] wfld{s ;+3fTdsdf cfwfl/t :jfottf dfu]sf] lyof] . Tof] lbPsf] eP pgLx? Eff/td} c6fpg] lyP . ef/tLo sf+u|];n] :jfottf lbg gdfg] kl5 dfq d'lZnd lnu k[ystf lt/ nfu]sf] xf] . ha ef/tLo sf+u|];n] d'l:nd lnusf] :jfottfsf] dfu dfGof], ta k[ystf cfGbf]ngn] ult lnO;s]sf] lyof] . of] 36gfn] klg :jfottf ;dod} glbPdf b]z 6'ls|g ;Sg] /x]5 eg]/ b]vfp5 . kfls:tfg 6's|]sf] kL8fbfoL lzIffn] g]x?n] hflto -eflifs_ ;d'bfox?n] :jfottf dfUbf efiffsf] cfwf/df ;+3fTds If]qx? agfP . ef/tsf] cgejaf6 g]kfnn] lsg lzIff glng] <>

g]kfndf /x]sf] laleGg ;d'bfosf ljljw txsf (multilayered) ;d:ofx¿ hflto ;+3fTds ;+/rgfn] dfq xn ug{ ;Sb}g . To;sf] nflu laleGg ;+/rgfx? k|Ztfj ul/Psf 5g . ;]h k|sfzgbf/f k|sflzt 6'jf{8 c 8]df]s|]l6s g]kfndf -@))%, t;|f] l/k|LG6 @))^_ d}n] blnt, dlxnf, ;fgf 7'nf cflbjf;L hghfltx? / dw]zLx?sf] ;d:ofx? xn ug{ / afx'g If]qLsf] xs klg ;'/lIft ug{ yk cf7j6f ;+/rgfx? k|Ztfj u/]sf] 5' - u}/ ef}uf]lns ;+l3otf, pk :jfottf / clt ;Ldf8=lst ;d'bfonfO laz]if Aoa:yf, cf/If0f, ;dfg'kflts r'gfj k|0ffnL, s]lGb|o l;+xfnf]sg cbfnt, cNk;+Vossf] clwsf/ / zlStzfln hflto dflyNnf] ;bg . oL ;a} ;+/rgfx¿sf] g]kfndf h?/t 5 . s'g} Pp6f, b'O{j6f, jf tLg j6f ;+/rgfx¿ dfq kof{Kt x'Fb}g lsgls k|To]s ;+/rgf laleGg ;d'bfosf] a]Unf a]Un} ;d:ofx? ;dfwfg ug{sf] nflu k|:tfj ul/Psf] xf] . hflto ;+3fTds ;+/rgf ;a} eGbf cfjZos ;+/rgf xf] t/ To;n] dfq ;a} ;d:ofx? ;dfwfg x'b}g . hflto ;+3fTds ;+/rgfn] ;a} ;d:of ;dfwfg x'b}g elg pSt ;+/rgf l7s 5}g eGg' nf]stGqsf] s]lx sdhf]/Lx? b]vfO nf]stGq l7s 5}g eGg] ts{ u/] h:t} xf] . To;df s'g} t's 5}g . g]kfnL k|f1x?n] laleGg ;+/rgfx?sf] k|zZt k|Ztfjx? NofPsf 5g . lab]zLx?sf] lstfjx?sf] dfq cfzf / e/ ug]{ rng cGTo ul/ hf] sf]lxn] ultnf] s[lt n]v] p;sf] hft, ln8+u / /8= Vofn gu/L cWoog ug]{ cfbt a;fpg' kb{5 .

To:t} ;fwg, ;|f]t, bIf hgzlStsf] sld x'G5 eg]/ cem} klg ef+h]f xfNg] ug]{ ul/Psf] 5 . To;f] xf] eg] t las]Gb|Ls/0f klg gu/] eO xfNof] lg . of] ts{ cufl8 ;fg]{x?df s]lGb|otfsf] w8+w8=tL cem} /x]sf] cfefif kfOG5 . 8f= dLgf cfrfo{n] eg] h:t} clxn] s]Gb|n] lhNnfx?df vr{ ug]{ u/]sf] ah]6 k|b]zx?nfO lbPdf pgLx?n] al9 bIftfsf] ;fy vr{ ug]{5g . To;t} 8f= xs{ u?8=n] :yfgLo If]qx?n] cfkmn} a9L ;fwg / ;|f]t h'6fpg ;Sg] bx|f cfwf/x? lbPsf 5g . s0ff{nLnfO :jfottf rflxPsf] 5 lsgsL s]Gb| / s]Gb|sf laz];1x?n] To; If]qsf] ;w}{ pk]Iff u/] . ;fwg / zlSt lbPdf s0ffnLjf;Lx? cfkmgf ;d:ofx? s]Gb|n] eGbf al9 bIftfsf ;fy ;dfwg ug{ ;S5g .

ax'/fli6o /fHo

/fli6otf cWoog ug]{ k|f1x?n] !(^) sf] k'af{w b]lvg} /fHo /fi6sf] cawf/0ffn] ax'hflto b]zx?df hflto b+ufx? lgDtfof] eg]/ eGb} cfPsf 5g . /fHo /fi6sf] cawf/0ff ;'Gbf lg/k]If h:tf] nfUg] t/ ax'hflto b]zx?df lg/k]Iftfsf] 5ftf cf]9L x}sdjfbL ;d'bfox?n] cfkmgf] d'No / dfGotf c?df nfb]/ To;sf] e/df /fh u/]/ cfkmgf] ;d'bfosf] lxt / cGonfO cGofo u/]sf] x'gfn] b+ufx? ePsf] lyof] . t;{y ax'hflto b]zx?sf] nflu /fHo /fi6sf] cawf/0ff sfd gnfUg] 7x/ ePsf] w]/} eO;Sof] . To;sf] ;66f ax'hflto b]zx?df ax'/fli6o /fHosf] cawf/0ff cufl8 cfPsf] 5 .

cfTdlg0f{osf] clwsf/

To:t} cfZro{sf] s'/f cfTdlg0f{osf] clwsf/ k|lt klg s]lx AolStx? em:s]sf] kfOof] . cfTdlg0f{osf] clwsf/ nf]stGqsf] cfwf/e't vDaf xf] . olb s'g} AolStnfO cfkmgf] af/]df cfkm} lg0f{o ug]{ clwsf/ lbOPg eg] To;n] To; AolStsf] nf]stflGqs clwsf/nfO s'l07t ub{5 . o;n] s]lx 6f7f af7fnfO hgtf eGbf a9L hfGb5f}+ elg dfly /xL ;a]{;jf aGg] af6f] v'nfO lbG5 . tfgfzfxx?n] klg o:t} ts{x? k]z ub{5g .

cfTdlg0f{osf] clwsf/n] ljv08gnfO{ 6]jf lbFb}g . g]kfndf cfh;Dd s'g} klg ;d'bfox?n] k[ystfafbL] cfGbf]ng u/]sf 5}gg . o:tf] ca:yfdf klg laz]if ;d'bfox? / tL ;d'bfosf ;b:ox? k|lt lav08gsf] cf/f]k nufpg' hflto k'af{u|x (racism) xf] . l;4fGttM cfTdlg0f{osf] clwsf/n] ljv08g ug]{ xs ;'/lIft ub{5 t/ b]zx¿ la/n} of] clwsf/sf] k|of]u u/L 6'lqmPsf 5g\\ . a?, e]befj / c;Gtf]if (alienation) sd u/]/ o; clwsf/n] ljv08gsf] dfunfO{ dTy/ kfb{5 / /fli6«o PsLs/0fnfO{ 6]jf k'¥ofpF5 . csf]{lt/, e]befj hf/L/x]df, cfTdlg0f{osf] clwsf/nfO{ dfGotf glbF+bf klg ;d'bfox¿ k{ystfjfbL cfGbf]ngdf nfu]sf] pbfx/0fx¿ ;+;f/df w]/} 5g\\ .

cGTodf, hflto ;+3fTds ;+/rgfaf/]df k|fo h;f] sf7df8f}+jfzL s]lx k'?if afx'gx?n] la/f]w u/]sf] kfOG5 . If]qL afx'gx?sf] k'vf}{nL If]q sFlx gePsf]n] ;+l3o ;+/rgfdf pgLx?sf] cfsfFIffsf] s;/L /Iff x'G5 eGg] k|Zg p7fOg] ul/Psf] 5 . klxnf] s'/f t, lzIfLt ;d'bfon] slx g slx 7fp+F hxfF klg kfFp5g . cd]l/sf / cGo b]zx?df ox'lbx?sf] k|efj o;sf] pbfx/0f xf] . Tof] eGbf dxTjk'0f{ s'/f t afx'g If]qLx? Hfft hfltsf] cfwf/df b]zdf ;a} eGbf al9 hg;+Vof ePsf] x'gfn] s]Gb|nfO pgLx/n] al9 k|efj kf5{g / s]Gb| dfkm{t cfkmgf lxtsf] /Iff ug{]5g . s]Gb| ;a} eGbf zlStzfnL x'g] ePsfn] ;+3fTds g]kfndf klg afx'g If]qLsf] x}sd s]lx xb;Dd sfod g} /xg] 5 . clxn]sf] h:tf] cToflws xfnLd'xfnL gx'g] dfq xf] . hflto ;+3fTds Aoa:yfn] s]Gb|df ax'dt gx'g] hfltx?nfO k|b]z agfO tL k|b]zx?df pgLx?sf] ax'dt agfO pgLx?sf] :j;fzgsf] Aoa:yf ub{5 . hflto ;+l3otfn] ax'hflto b]zdf al9 eGbf al9 hfltx?nfO{ :j;f;g ug{ lbO al9 eGbf al9 hgtfnfO /fHo ;+rfngdf ;xeflutf u/fpFb5 . a9L hgtfnfO ;dfj]z ug]{ ;+/rgfx?af6 ;a{;fwf/0f hgtfx? tl;{g' kg]{ h?/t 5}g / tl;{Psf klg 5}gg .

Comments

I say let all parties come up with their maps - ethnic or administrative - and let them go to the people, and let them decide during a completely proportional election to the constituent assembly.