संघीय गठबन्धन, आदिवासी जनजाति राष्टिय आन्दोलन, नयाँ शक्ती को सिंह दरबार धर्ना कार्यक्रममा नागरिक अगुवा डा ़ सुन्दरमणि डिक्षित को सम्बोधन ।Posted by Manaratna Shakya on Monday, December 7, 2015
Nepal solution lies in honest search for effective federalism
India’s Minister for External Affairs, Sushma Swaraj only said, ‘if Madhesis get justice, and God willed’, the situation would ease up in Nepal in the coming days. However, that lacked a firm commitment.
नेपाली लोग मधेशीयो के बारे मे अक्सर ज़रूरतसे ज़्यादा पढ़ लेते है, ज़रूरतसे ज़्यादा सुन लेते है, ज़्यादा देख लेते है pic.twitter.com/T17iOWDpTn— Jiyara Shah (@jiyara_shah) December 9, 2015
श्रमेव जयते : प्रत्येक श्रमिक को रोज़गार सुरक्षा, वेतन सुरक्षा और सामाजिक सुरक्षा के लिए मोदी सरकार अग्रसर pic.twitter.com/JrlK4lPtgJ— BJP (@BJP4India) December 9, 2015
Improving the Sino-African Relationship
What Beijing Can Do
6th Forum on China–Africa Cooperation ..... held once every three years .... a $60 billion package of loans, aid, investment, and other financial support to Africa. ...... In 2013, Chinese President Xi Jinping signaled Africa’s importance to Chinese foreign policy by visiting the Republic of Congo, South Africa, and Tanzania on his first presidential trip overseas. African governments have welcomed China’s “no-strings attached” political approach, which broadly gives Africa an alternative to conditional aid from Western donors
A Costly Corridor
How China and Pakistan Could Remake Asia
the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor, an economic initiative to connect the two countries through a web of railways, roads, pipelines, and other development projects. Once built, the nearly 2,000-mile-long corridor will shorten China's route to the Middle East by about 7,500 miles. No wonder China has invested $46 billion in the project.
The Evolving Dynamic of China-Africa Relations
China must make strategic decisions and invest wisely to promote the continued prosperity of the China-Africa relationship.
China’s rise and Africa’s renaissance have gone hand in hand, creating a historic opportunity for the development of China-Africa relations. However, the international situation remains complex and competition among great powers in Africa has intensified........ South-South cooperation .... improving the governance capabilities of African nations ..... Peace and stability in Africa are currently some of the most critical problems in the region ..... China has deployed the largest number of peacekeeping forces among the permanent UNSC members, making it an indispensable part of the African peacekeeping process. ........... China can clearly and persistently support African efforts to join as permanent members of the UN Security Council and increase their weight in the IMF, World Bank, and other institutions. ..... $30 billion in loan credits to Africa in three years ....... China will train 30,000 African professionals in various sectors, offer 18,000 government scholarships ...... Beijing has promised to grant zero-tariff treatment to 97 percent of exports from least-developed countries that have established diplomatic relations with China .... China’s African policy needs innovation that keeps pace with international realities and African and Chinese capabilities.China and India in Africa
The two Asian powers are rapidly stepping up their engagement in Africa.
In October 2015, New Delhi hosted the India-Africa Forum Summit, which for the first time brought together all 54 African countries. ...... India wants to join the UN Security Council and is counting on the African delegates’ votes to achieve that. But India is also interested in spurring its economic development, by investing abroad, accessing overseas markets, and securing energy resources, and it very much has its eye on Africa. ........ Indian investment flow in Africa is significant, at $50 billion in 2014, although the vast majority of that goes to the tax haven Mauritius. ....... Historically, India had an early presence in East Africa (particularly in Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda) and Southern Africa (South Africa, Mauritius, Madagascar and Seychelles); hence, there is an important African population of Indian descent in these countries. While Indian investments are mostly concentrated in these countries due to the early historical ties and significant populations of Indian origin, more and more Indian companies are investing in West and North Africa. ........ Africans of Indian descent help foster Africa-India economic and cultural relations. Many are involved in private entrepreneurship and set up businesses between Africa and India in various economic sectors. They facilitate access to African markets for Indian companies. ...... Africa’s partners, and particularly its traditional partners, often view emerging economies’ engagement with Africa is a threat and a cause for rivalry and competition, even though Europe and the United States, as Africa’s traditional partners, are still the top foreign investors in Africa and its largest trading partners. ......
The growing investment and trade relations between emerging economies and African countries do contribute to declining trade and investment between Africa and its traditional partners, a situation fuelled by the financial crisis in Europe and the United States as well as growing interest in South-South trade and investment between African countries and emerging economies in the global South........ While the European Union and the United States, for instance, enjoy robust economic relations with China, they worry when African countries seek the same. .....
As for India and China in Africa, in terms of investment and trade statistics, there is little competition.In 2014, China’s trade with Africa was at $200 billion, while trade between India and Africa was at $70 billion. As for investment, leaving aside the Mauritius tax haven, Chinese investment in Africa outweighs India’s. However, India-Africa relations are growing ...... rivalries can be overstated. Business is increasingly multinational, and companies tend to collaborate and partner in the same business sectors.
Take Notice, Asia: China's Military Is Getting Leaner and More Lethal
Reforms to the People’s Liberation Army will help the Chinese military emerge as a more potent war-fighting force.
These reform measures are the most significant changes to the PLA since the 1950s ..... cut 300,000 troops ..... a shift to a U.S.-style military from an outdated Soviet model. ........ The U.S. military, despite its problems, is far more advanced and effective than any other military in the world in terms of its ability to fight and win a modern war. ...... its increasingly deteriorating security environment. ....... China is involved in multiple territorial disputes with other Asian countries. This means that it is at least theoretically possible that China’s military might one day face two enemies simultaneously, possibly in the East China Sea and the South China Sea. But China’s Navy is not yet mature enough to fight two wars simultaneously........ The PLA has not fought a war for nearly 30 years ...... There is a growing voice within China that is calling for the government to take part in or even send troops to Iraq and Syria to fight ISIS, but a popular and convincing objection is that the PLA simply has no fighting experience. Thus, sending them over to the Middle East would only end in disaster.......Pakistan, China, Iran and the remaking of regional security
corruption is the number one killer of the PLA on the battlefield.
Iran’s integration with the international community as a ‘normal country’ ...... the historic entente between Russia and China which has consolidated almost immeasurably in the past one year period since the New Cold War tendencies began appearing .... a largely-unnoticed but extremely significant shift in the foreign-policy priorities of Pakistan, a genuinely ‘pivotal’ state in the politics of South Asia, given its highly strategic geographic location in the South Asian region, from where it impacts regional security in Central Asia and West Asia. ....... “One Belt, One Road” initiative, which is a global project in character and scope and all but prefaces
China’s inexorable rise on the world stage as a superpower. ...... It is extraordinary that China is committing such massive investment in excess 40 billion dollars in a single country, undeterred by the perception in the western financial circles that Pakistan is a “failing state” and a revolving door of international terrorism. ...... Pakistan’s stability has come to be a matter of serious concern from the perspective of China’s internal security needs, which is attributable not only to the spurt in terrorist activities in Xinjiang by groups that are to be traced to the Af-Pak region, but also out of China’s emergent concerns as a stakeholder in regional stability that is an imperative need to advance its regional and global policies (politico-military, economic and cultural) more optimally. .......
Beijing’s unmistakable empathy with India’s concerns as a victim of terrorism....... China finds itself “awkward diplomatically” to have taken a “neutral stand” on the terrorist attack on Mumbai ...... China has suffered from U.S. double standards on terrorism and should not behave in a similar fashion. .......
China hopes to contribute to the stabilization of Pakistan in a way that the United States has never attempted in the entire chronicle of its dalliance with Pakistan as a “non-NATO ally” over the past decades....... future historians will take note of Xi’s visit in 2015 to Islamabad as marking the beginning of the end of American manipulation of the Pakistani policy calculus, which began six decades ago with the military coup staged by Ayub Khan in the early 1950s. ....... Pakistan is actually the single most critical gateway for China in the emergent paradigm. Arguably, that alone could explain the extraordinary extent to which China is making the stabilization of Pakistan a real-time dimension to its own national policies of development....... China’s relations with the Central Asian region are already advanced to a high level. Despite concerted U.S. attempts to create unease in the Russian mind regarding China’s rising influence in the Central Asian region, the two great powers have seen through the American ploys and have carefully calibrated their moves in such a way that a remarkable degree of harmonization of their respective policies has been possible so far. ...... China treads carefully not to be seen as challenging even inadvertently Russia’s dominant presence in the Central region, while Moscow has its uses for China’s unmatchable contribution to the region’s economic progress and development and trusts the Central Asian leaders to appreciate that Russia’s regional leadership is unique and is irreplaceable, both historically speaking and in a contemporary sense. Most important, China and Russia share a great wariness about any projection of American power into Central Asia. ...... The Russian-Chinese entente and mutual understanding has touched a very high level today that makes it impossible for Washington to create misperceptions or sow seeds of discord between the two great powers. The “westernists” among the Russian elites are generally in retreat and the objective considerations in which Russia is placed in Eurasia also prompt Moscow to move closer to Beijing...... Russian energy officials for the first time spoke of a scenario whereby beyond 2019 it will be entirely up to Europe to seek out and ensure that Russian gas is tapped from Greece where it will reach via the Turkish Stream pipeline, whereas Moscow will always have the alternative to divert the “European gas” to the market China via the new Altai pipeline....... Moscow also announced last week that China is the first country to be supplied its latest S-400 anti-ballistic missile defense system, which is currently in service only with the Russian armed forces and is rated as the most capable SAM system in use in the Asia-Pacific region. ...... They have no illusion that the U.S.’ containment strategy is aimed at both of them ..... ever since the communist takeover in Kabul in 1978 and the Islamic Revolution in Iran the very next year at which point the Saudi-Pakistani dalliance began truly blossoming into a full-fledged strategic alliance under the American patronage, riveted on the lure of “jihadism”. ...... Russia has an added sense of urgency, too, since it has been at the receiving end of the U.S. – Pakistani alliance for decades and there could be an end in sight, finally. ..... when the Chinese strategies toward Pakistan are outgrowing their traditional bilateral (or regional) dimensions and beginning to assume a global character..... Russia is encouraging Iran to preserve its independent foreign policies and “strategic autonomy” and is challenging the West’s aspirations to transform Iran into a citadel of western interests in a pale image of what it used to be till the 1979 Islamic Revolution rewrote regional politics and current history in that region. ..... China might be willing to undertake the construction of an Iran-Pakistan gas pipeline..... Russia and China hope to induct Iran and Pakistan into the Shanghai Cooperation Organization tent (SCO) as a full member in a very near future.